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Historical Background
General Remarks
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The Children's Crusade
The Consequences of the Crusades
The Third Crusade 1189-1192
After the bloody defeat of the Christian armies at Hittim and the loss of Jerusalem, Pope Gregor VIII called for another crusade in 1187. It was led by the European kings Richard I of England (the Lion Heart), Philip II of France and the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederic I (Barbarossa).

From its very beginnings, this alliance was very unstable. After emperor Barbarossa drowned in the river Saleph, most of his troops returned home. In 1191, the English and French crusaders sieged and captured Acre. The Christian army defeated Saladin near Arsuf, but failed to recapture Jerusalem due to a shortage in food and water. In the following year, Richard established a truce with Saladin and returned home by the end of 1192. On his way back, Richard was taken prisoner by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, who held the King for ransom. Richard never returned to the Holy Land.

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